These numbers are from the research by the McAfee security unit in conjunction with the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), a Washington, DC think tank.
The loss estimate is from the crimes reported and known to the public. Several of these cyber crimes go unreported every year. The McAfee study says, “the low-end estimate of cyber attack-related losses is $375 billion, while the upper limit is $575 billion”. “Even the smallest of these figures is more than the national income of most countries and governments,” the report stated.